|Pablo Emilio Escobar Gaviria (December 1, 1949 – December 2, 1993) was a Colombian drug lord and Medellín cartel leader.|
One of the wealthiest men in the world at the height of his power, the Medellín drug cartel was smuggling 15 tons of cocaine a day, worth more than half a billion dollars, into the United States.
|In the early 1970s Escobar was a thief and bodyguard. He made a quick $100,000 from the kidnapping and ransoming a Medellín executive before entering the drug trade with Alvaro Prieto.|
In 1975, Escobar started developing his own cocaine operation. He even flew a plane himself, mainly between Colombia and Panama, to smuggle a load into the United States. When he later bought 15 new and bigger airplanes (including a Learjet) and 6 helicopters, he decommissioned the plane and hung it above the gate to his ranch.
|Corruption and intimidation characterized Escobar's operations. His policy in dealing with law enforcement and the government was referred to as "plata o plomo," (literally silver or lead, colloquially [accept] money or [face] bullets).|
This resulted in the deaths of thousands, including civilians, policemen and state officials. The Colombian cartels' continuing struggles to maintain control resulted in Colombia quickly becoming the world’s murder capital.
In 1989, Forbes magazine estimated Escobar to be the seventh-richest man in the world with a personal wealth of close to US$25 billion while his Medellín cartel controlled 80% of the global cocaine market
|In 1992 United States Operators from Delta Force, Navy SEALs and Centra Spike joined an all-out manhunt for Escobar. They trained and advised a special Colombian police task force, known as the Search Bloc, which had been created to locate Escobar. |
The war against Escobar ended on December 2, 1993. Using radio triangulation technology provided as part of the United States efforts, a Colombian electronic surveillance team found him hiding in a middle-class barrio in Medellín.
A firefight with Escobar and his bodyguard ensued. The two fugitives attempted to escape by running across the roofs of adjoining houses to reach a back street, but both were shot and killed by Colombian National Police.